平等,民主,与国家主西方的和解 [Equality, Democracy and National Sovereignty: Reconciling East and West] (Beijing: People’s Publishing House, 2016).

Globalizing Justice: The Ethics of Poverty and Power (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).

Moral Differences: Truth, Justice and Conscience in a World of Conflict (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992).

Fact and Method: Explanation, Confirmation and Reality in the Natural and the Social Sciences (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987).

Analyzing Marx: Morality, Power and History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Chinese translation, Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2009.


“Social Democracy and Free Enterprise,” Journal of Social Philosophy 50 (2019): 597-619. [pdf]

“Is Capitalism Corrupt?”, Social Philosophy and Policy 35 (2018): 31-53. [pdf]

“Why Sovereignty Matters Despite Injustice: The Ethics of Intervention” in C.A.J. Coady, Ned Dobos and Sagar Sanyal, Challenges for Humanitarian Intervention: Ethical Demand and Political Reality (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018), pp. 38-58.

“‘Rogue State’ Is Not ‘OK’: A Critique of an American Usage,” Strife and King’s Student Law Review, joint issue I (2018): 31-47. [pdf]

“Learning from Libertarianism: Thanks from an Unrepentant Social Democrat” in Jason Brennan, Bas van der Vossen and David Schmidtz, The Routledge Handbook of Libertarianism (New York: Routledge, 2018), pp. 3-21. [pdf]

“Unequal Bargaining Power and Economic Justice: How Workers Are Exploited and Why It Matters” in Monique Deveaux and Vida Panitch, Exploitation: From Practice to Theory (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2017), pp. 15-34.

“后美国时代:中国崛起的道德挑战” [“After the American Century: The Moral Challenge of China’s Rise”], Studies on Marxist Theory in Higher Education (Beijing), vol. 3, no. 4 (2017): 84-94.

“Michael Blake’s Border Controls,” Ethics & International Affairs 29 (2015): 289-99.

“Civilian Deaths and American Power” in Matthew Evangelista and Henry Shue, eds., The American Way of Bombing: Changing Ethical and Legal Norms, from Flying Fortresses to Drones (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2014), pp.158-71.

“政治平等如何重要” (Chinese translation of “How Does Political Equality Matter?”), Marxism & Reality (Beijing), 24 (2014): 157-65.

“From Rationality to Equality: Three Stages of Doubt,” Journal of Ethics 18 (2014): 253-64.

“The Cosmopolitanism Controversy Needs a Mid-Life Crisis,” in Gillian Brock, ed., Cosmopolitanism versus Non-Cosmopolitanism (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013), pp. 272-93.

“Global Poverty and Global Inequality” in Jon Mandle and David Reidy, eds., A Companion to Rawls (Malden: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), pp. 361-77.

“Global Needs and Special Relationships” in David Grusky and Tamar Kricheli-Katz, eds., The New Gilded Age (Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2012), pp. 39-60. [pdf]

“Rawls and Global Justice: A Dispute over a Kantian Legacy,” Philosophical Forum 43 (2012): 297-309.

“The Ethics of America’s Afghan War,” Ethics & International Affairs 25 (2011): 103-131.

“Rawls and Global Justice: A Dispute over a Legacy,” The Monist 94 (2011): 466-88.

“How Global Inequality Matters,” Journal of Social Philosophy 52 (2011): 88-98.

“Might Still Distorts Right: Perils of the Rule of Law Project” in James Fleming, ed., Getting to the Rule of Law, Nomos L (New York: New York University Press, 2011), pp. 265-92.

“Relationships of Equality: A Camping Trip Revisited,” Journal of Ethics 14 (2010): 231-53. [pdf]

“The Interest of the Governed and the Interests of Humanity: The Moral Importance of Borders,” Boston University Law Review 90 (2010): 1785-1804.

“Crossing Borders to Fight Injustice: The Ethics of Humanitarian Intervention” in Roger Wertheimer, ed., Empowering Our Military Conscience (Ashgate: Farnham, 2010), pp. 59-73.

“Global Power and Economic Justice” in Charles Beitz and Robert Goodin, eds. Global Basic Rights (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), pp. 156-80.

“Unlearning American Patriotism,” Theory and Research in Education 5 (2007): 7-21.

“Global Institutional Reform and Global Social Movements: From False Promise to Realistic Hope,” Cornell International Law Journal 39 (2006): 501-14.

“The Critique of Globalization”” in Matthias Fritsch and Michel Seymour, eds., Reason and Emancipation: Essays on the Philosophy of Kai Nielsen (Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2006), pp. 330-9.

“Terrorism and Legitimacy,” Journal of Social Philosophy 36 (2005): 194-201.

“Beneficence, Duty and Distance,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 32 (2004): 357-83.

“Cosmopolitanism and Its Limits,” Theoria (South Africa), 104 (2004): 38-53.

“Moral Closeness and World Community” in Deen Chatterjee, ed., The Ethics of Assistance (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.) Subsequently anthologized in Thomas Pogge and Keith Horton, eds., Global Ethics: Seminal Essays (New York: Paragon, 2008).

“Terrorism, War and Empire” in James Sterba, ed., Terrorism and International Justice (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003).

“Respectable Oppressors, Hypocritical Liberators,” in Deen Chatterjee and Donald Scheid, eds., Ethics and Foreign Intervention (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), pp. 215-50.

“Marxism and Capitalism” in R.G. Frey and Christopher Wellman, eds., Blackwell Companion to Applied Ethics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003), pp. 62-74

“Too Much Inequality,” Social Philosophy and Policy, 19 (2002): 275-313. This issue was also published as Ellen Paul, ed., Should Differences in Income and Wealth Matter? (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002).

“Marx’s Legacy” in Robert Simon, ed., Blackwell Companion to Political Philosophy (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001), pp. 131-53. Chinese translation, Beijing: Renmin University Press, 2009.

“Moral Contractualism and Moral Sensitivity,” Social Theory and Practice, 27 (2002): 193-220.

“International Justice” in Neil Smelser and Paul Baltes, eds., International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences (Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001), pp. 7780-86.

“Nationalist Morality and Crimes Against Humanity” in Aleksandar Jokic, ed., War Crimes and Collective Wrongdoing (Oxford: Blackwell, 2001), pp. 143-62.

“Half-Naturalized Social Kinds,” Philosophy of Science (Proceedings), 67 (2000): S640-S652.

“Cosmopolitan Respect and Patriotic Concern,” Philosophy & Public Affairs 27 (1998): 202-24. Subsequently anthologized.

“Moral Education in and after Marx,” in Amelie O. Rorty, ed., Philosophers on Education (New York: Routledge, 1998), pp. 374-93.

“Marxist Philosophy of Science,” Edward Craig, ed., Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy (New York: Routledge, 1998), vol. 6, pp. 146-50.

“Three Versions of Objectivity: Moral, Aesthetic and Scientific” in Jerrold Levinson, ed., Aesthetics and Ethics (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), pp. 26-58.

“Killing for the Homeland: Patriotism, Nationalism and Violence,” Journal of Ethics 1 (1997): 165-85.

“Externalist Self-Knowledge and the Scope of the A Priori,” Analysis 1 (1997): 67-74.

Introduction to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels in Steven Cahn, ed., Classics of Modern Political Theory (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997), pp. 836-41; (also in second edition, 2002).

“Worries about Quandaries” in David Braybrooke, ed., Social Rules (Boulder: Westview, 1996), pp. 105-115.

“The Norms of Reason,” Philosophical Review 104 (1995): 205-245.

“The Advancement of Realism,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 55 (1995): 637-45.

“Economic Inequality and Political Oppression,” Theoria (South Africa) 85 (1995): 1-15.

“Meaningful Projects” in George Levine, ed., Realism and Representation (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1993), pp. 100-124.

“Realism without Positivism,” Philosophical Topics 20 (1992): 85-114.

“Marxism” and “Moral Realism” in L. Becker and C. Becker, eds., Encyclopedia of Ethics (New York: Garland, 1992.) New versions are included in the second edition (New York: Routledge, 2001).

“Justice as Social Freedom” in R. Beehler, D. Copp and B. Szabados, eds., On the Track of Reason: Essays in Honor of Kai Nielsen (Boulder: Westview, 1992), pp. 37-55.

“Social and Political Theory” in Terrell Carver, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Marx (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 55-105.

“In Search of Einstein’s Legacy: A Critical Notice of Arthur Fine, The Shaky Game,” Philosophical Review 98 (l989): 215-238.

“Reply to Buchanan,” Philosophical Studies 57 (l989): 315-328.

“A Clinical Science,” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 18 (l988): 659-680.

“Ways of Moral Learning,” Philosophical Review 94 (1985): 507-556.

“Producing Change” in T. Ball and J. Farr (eds.), After Marx, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 59-87.

“Marx and Morality” in Nomos, Volume XXVI: Marxism Today, (1983): 3-32.

“Fact and Method in the Social Sciences” in G. Wallulis and D. Sabia (eds.), Changing Social Science (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1983), pp. 73-101. Subsequently anthologized.

“Questions of Power in Political Theory” in John Nelson, ed., What Should Political Theory Be Now?, (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1983), pp. 361-389.

“Marx in Modern Philosophy,” Social Science Quarterly, 64 (l983): 846-86l.

“Rights or Consequences” in P.A. French, ed., Social and Political Philosophy: Midwest Studies in Philosophy VII (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1982), pp. 151-174.

“Rights and Reality,” Philosophical Review 90 (1981): 383-407.

“Marx and Aristotle: A Kind of Consequentialism”, in K. Nielsen and S. Patten, eds., Marx and Morality, Canadian Journal of Philosophy, Supplementary Volume VII (1981), pp. 323-352. Subsequently anthologized.

“Productive Forces and the Forces of Change,” Philosophical Review 90 (1981): 91-117.

“Solipsism in the Tractatus,” Journal of the History of Philosophy 18 (1980): 57-74.

“Reason and Commitment in the Social Sciences,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 8 (1979): 241-266.

“Truth in Beauty,” American Philosophical Quarterly 16 (1979): 317-325.

“Methodological Individualism and Social Explanation,” Philosophy of Science 45 (1978): 387-414. Subsequently anthologized.

“Absolute Certainty,” Mind 87 (1978): 46-65.

“Wittgenstein in Transition,” Philosophical Review 86 (1977): 520-544.

“The Consistency of Historical Materialism,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 4 (1975): 390-409. Subsequently anthologized.

“Rawls, Risk, and Utilitarianism,” Philosophical Studies 28 (1975): 55-61.

“Rawls and Marxism,” revised version of 1974 paper, in N. Daniels, ed. Reading Rawls, (New York: Basic Books, 1975), pp. 206-230. Original subsequently anthologized.

“Rawls and Marxism,” Philosophy and Public Affairs 3 (1974): 167-191.

“On the Privacy of Color,” Analysis 30 (1970): 60-61.

Work in Progress

The Ethics of Social Democracy: Justice Meets Capitalism
“Immigration and Reality”
“Harm, Intention and Trust: The Truth in ‘Double Effect’”


“The Two Worlds of Mr. Chen,” (2019), a documentary about a migrant family in China split between Beijing and a village in Henan, created from original footage.

“Tiananmen 1989 in Depth,” (2015), created from news footage and a recording made in the Square during the crackdown.

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